# COULOMB’S LAW

Coulomb’s Law – Force between two point electric charges:

The electrostatic force of interaction (attraction or repulsion) between two point electric charges is directly proportional to the product of the charges, inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them and acts along the line joining the two charges.

Strictly speaking, Coulomb’s law applies to stationary point charges.   where ε0 is the permittivity of free space

NOTE: Electrostatic Force decreases with increase in K value.

Permitivity or Dielectric constant, K Where K,  is relative permitivity of the medium or dielectric constant.

(1)  When a very high electric field is created in a dielectric, the outer electron may get detached from their parent atoms. This phenomenon is known as dielectric breakdown. The minimum field at which the breakdown occurs is called dielectric strength of the material.

(2)  Material                  Dielectric Constant

Vaccum                                         1

GLASS                                            4

WATER                                         80

KERUSENE                                  2

AIR                                                   1

# Gravitational force

1.     It depends on medium between two point charges.

2.     It is valid only for point charges.

3.     Quantisation of charge (Charge on a body is an integral multiple of charge on an electron) q=+ne

4.     Charge is not concerned with Einstein’s theory of relativity.

5.     Electrostatic force may be attractive or repulsive.

6.     Electrostatic forces are extremely larger than gravitational force.

1. It does not depend on the medium between    two masses.

2.  It is not valid for point charges

3. Quantisation of mass in not possible.

4. Mass is related to theory of relativity Where m0 = Mass of the body at rest.

m is the mass of the body moving with  velocity v. ,c is speed of light.

5. Gravitational force is always attractive.

6. Gravitational force are extremely smaller   than electrostatic force.

NOTE:  Electrostatic force and Gravitational force both are flow newton’s third law (action and reaction ) or both force are central force, and conservative force.

## COULOMB'S LAW IN MEDIUM

in vacuum  = permittivity of free space

in medium  = permittivity of medium   Fm = εr Fo

Fm  >  Fo

coulomb force is strong

## Coulomb’s law in a vector form :

Where